CICHLIDS FOR YOUR AQUARIUM
There are over 160 genera and more than 900 species of Cichlids [photos], with newly discovered species reported on a regular basis. This group offers a huge diversity of color, behavior, size, and body shape.� Cichlids are widespread throughout the world, including Africa, South America, Asia, �Central America, and even North America.� All these Cichlids come from only one family, Cichlidae, and thus are separated in this book by the geographical area from which they are found. �Most Cichlids kept in captivity come from the Great African Rift Lakes, Lake Malawi or Lake Tanganyika; various African rivers, the Amazon Basin in South America, or Central America.
SOCIAL BEHAVIORThe Cichlid Family includes a huge, diverse group of fish. �Thus, it is difficult to make generalizations about this family.� However, it is safe to say that many cichlids have a tendency towards aggressive behavior. �This conduct can be attributed to cichlids' highly developed brood care. �Other cichlids are shoaling fish which are best kept in groups.
PAIRINGSeveral different types of bonds are formed between male and female cichlids. �These include:
- Monogamy-The female and the male remain together after spawning.
- Polygyny- The male stays together with several females
- Polyandry- The female bonds with several males. �This form of pairing is rare.
- Agamy- No lasting bond is formed between the pair. �They separate right after spawning.
BREEDINGCichlids have highly developed brood care and reproductive behavior. �Nearly all Cichlids lay their eggs on some substrate, whether it be rocks, plants, or sand. Cichlids are now characterized into two breeding groups; Open and Shelter Brooders. � Open brooders lay eggs on an open surface, such as rocks, sand, and plants. �The eggs can number as high as 10,000 from one laying. These eggs are usually small and clump together. �Clear sexual dimorphism and dichromatism is usually evident.� Examples of open water brooders include Pterophyllum, Symphysodon, and most species ofCichlasoma .
���Shelter brooders can be divided up into two groups. Cavity brooders and mouth brooders. In general, shelter brooders lay substantially less eggs, usually not more than 300, and have larger more colorful eggs. These fish are easier to sex because males are larger and more colorful.
Ovophile or "egg-loving" mouth-brooders - The male makes a pit in his territory, where the eggs are laid. The eggs are sucked up into the female's mouth usually, but occasionally, during spawning. �After hatching the fry remain in the safety of the mother's mouth until they can fend for themselves. �The male, of some of these species, often has colorful, oval-shaped marks on its anal fin. These spots serve an important role in the fertilization of the eggs and are known as egg spots or egg dummies. After the female has laid her eggs and sucks them into her mouth. She sees the eggs spots on the males, and thinking they were eggs she missed, will try to suck them up. �At this moment the male releases sperm which the female sucks up into her mouth, thus fertilizing the eggs. �Examples of Ovophile mouthbrooders include; Aulonocar a, Haplochromis, an d Pseudotropheus. Larvophile or "larvae-loving" mouth-brooders lay their eggs on a substrate. �After the eggs hatch, the female picks up the fry and keeps them in her mouth. Sometimes the parental protection stops after the fry are released from the mouth. Examples of Larvophile mouth-brooders are Geophagus and Sarotherodon.
Cavity brooders lay their eggs in caves. �The parents participate in brood care and may become aggressive towards other fish while caring for the eggs and the fry.�Examples of cavity brooders include Apistogram ma, Julidochromis, Neolamprologus, and Pelvicachromis. Mouth-brooders are fish that, at some point during brood care, will take their eggs or the fry into their mouths. �Mouth-brooders are divided up into two further categories depending on when the parents take the eggs/fry are taken into the mouth. ��
- DUMMY-EGG SPOTS
Many cichlids, especially those of Lake Malawi, have colored patches on the anal fin which
serve to aid spawning.� These patches are known as egg-spots, dummy eggs, egg dummies, or false egg spots. �These
spots are especially important in the fertilization of the real eggs. �When the female takes the real eggs
into her mouth, the male spreads his anal fin, displaying his egg spots. �The female sees these and sucks at them
assuming that they are real eggs.� At that moment the male releases sperm, which the female sucks into her mouth, thus fertilizing
FEEDING :Since there is such a variety of cichlid species, cichlids have a wide range of feeding habits. However most cichlids have an enormous appetite and are easily fed. �
- Omnivorous cichlids make up the greatest majority of cichlids.� In nature, these fish feed mostly on insects, crustaceans, and worms, but at times also eat plants.� Thus in aquaria these species should be offered a mixed diet of live foods, flakes foods, and plant or vegetable matter.� Examples of omnivorous cichlids include Cichlasomines, many West African species, Angelfish, andHeros species.�
- Carnivorous cichlids are predatory species which are specialized for eating other fish. Generally these species will eat small tank mates, although not fish of a similar size.� In aquaria, carnivorous cichlids can be fed live fish, worms, insects, insect larvae, and crustaceans, but also some will accept pellets, tablets, and large flakes. ��Examples of carnivorous cichlids are many Haplochromines, Pike Cichlids (genus Crenicichla), and Cyphotilapiaspecies.
- Herbivorous cichlids are species that prefer to feed on plant matter.� These fish will eat live aquarium plants. �In aquaria, herbivorous cichlids feed on plant-based flake and pellet foods, plants, and vegetables. �Some species will also feed on live foods. �Examples of herbivorous cichlids include someTilapia species.�
- Some species of herbivorous cichlids feed on the thick algae that grows on rocks. Living in the algae are micro-organisms and crustaceans known as Aufwuchs. �Types of cichlids that consume the algae and the Aufwuchs living within include Lake Malawi Mbunas and Lake Tanganyika Tropheus. �
Other Malawi Cichlids